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Greenplum 5.21.1 集群安装部署详述

2019-06-17 17:21作者:佚名来源:cnblogs.com/sini157浏览:52 评论:52

简单来说GPDB是一个分布式数据库软件,其可以管理和处理分布在多个不同主机上的海量数据。对于GPDB来说,一个DB实例实际上是由多个独立的PostgreSQL实例组成的,它们分布在不同的物理主机上,协同工作,呈现给用户的是一个DB的效果。Master是GPDB系统的访问入口,其负责处理客户端的连接及SQL 命令、协调系统中的其他Instance(Segment)工作,Segment负责管理和处理用户数据。

环境准备:
操作系统:CentOS Linux release 7.6.1810 (Core) 64位
master 1台(架构图中的主节点),Standby 1台(架构图中的从节点),Segment 2台。共4台服务器。

一、Master主机 Root 用户上操作

1. 修改/etc/hosts文件,添加下面内容(注:4台服务器相同的配置)

vim /etc/hosts

192.168.18.130 gp-master192.168.18.131 gp-standby192.168.18.132 gp-node1192.168.18.133 gp-node2

2. 服务器关闭selinux,防火墙4台服务器相互开放,测试环境可以直接先关闭防火墙。(注:4台服务器相同的配置)

关闭Firewalld

systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld

永久关闭Selinux

vim /etc/selinux/conf

# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:#     enforcing - SELinux security policy is enforced.#     permissive - SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.#     disabled - No SELinux policy is loaded.SELINUX=disabled# SELINUXTYPE= can take one of three two values:#     targeted - Targeted processes are protected,#     minimum - Modification of targeted policy. Only selected processes are protected. #     mls - Multi Level Security protection.SELINUXTYPE=targeted 

注:查看Selinux运行状态:getenforce,CLI界面非永久生效设置SeLinux:setenforce 0(0-1对应关闭和开启)

3. 操作系统参数设置

 vim /etc/sysctl.conf  (注:4台服务器相同的配置)

kernel.shmmax = 500000000kernel.shmmni = 4096kernel.shmall = 4000000000kernel.sem = 250 512000 100 2048kernel.sysrq = 1kernel.core_uses_pid = 1kernel.msgmnb = 65536kernel.msgmax = 65536net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 4096net.ipv4.conf.all.arp_filter = 1net.ipv4.conf.default.arp_filter = 1net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 10000vm.overcommit_memory = 2kernel.msgmni = 2048net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1025 65535

 vim /etc/security/limits.conf  (注:4台服务器相同的配置)

* soft nofile 65536* hard nofile 65536* soft nproc 131072* hard nproc 131072

磁盘预读参数及 deadline算法修改 (注:4台服务器相同的配置)

blockdev --setra 65536 /dev/sdaecho deadline > /sys/block/sda/queue/scheduler

注:磁盘盘符sda需根据自己的实际情况进行配置

软件下载地址:https://network.pivotal.io/products/pivotal-gpdb,下载:greenplum-db-5.21.1-rhel7-x86_64.rpm

在Master主机上安装GP二进制文件,也就是主机名是mdw的服务器。(注:在master上安装即可,后面通过批量的方法安装剩下的服务器)

rpm -ivh greenplum-db-5.21.1-rhel7-x86_64.rpm

注:默认安装目录:/usr/local

 在Master上添加gpadmin用户

adduser gpadminecho gpadmin | passwd --stdin gpadmin

 注:设置密码为了后面gpssh-exkeys -f hostfile_allhosts 使用

 在Master上给gpadmin用户提权

[root@gp-master ~]# visudo  gpadmin    ALL=(ALL)       ALLgpadmin    ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD:ALL

在Master主机上赋予gpadmin用户Greenplum文件夹的的权限

chown -R gpadmin.gpadmin /usr/local/greenplum-db*

 二、Master 主机 Gpadmin用户上操作

准备用于批量安装软件以及后续集群的初始化文件,hostfile_allhosts,hostfile_segments,hostfile_mshosts,存放到/home/gpadmin

su - gpadmin

vim hostfile_allhosts

gp-master
gp-standby
gp-node1
gp-node2

vim hostfile_segments

gp-node1gp-node2

vim hostfile_mshosts

gp-mastergp-standby

设置各主机之间免密登录

gpssh-exkeys -f hostfile_allhosts

注:需输入gpadmin用户的密码,此处为:gpadmin

设置用于安装Greenplum的文件夹权限

gpssh -f hostfile_allhosts=> sudo chown gpadmin.gpadmin /usr/local=> exit

创建及赋权master/standby主机元数据存储目录

gpssh -f hostfile_mshosts=>sudo mkdir /data/greenplum_data/gpmaster=>sudo chown -R gpadmin.gpadmin /data
=>exit

创建及赋权Segments主机数据存储目录

gpssh -f hostfile_segments=>sudo mkdir /data/greenplum_data/{primary,mirror}
=>sudo chown -R gpadmin.gpadmin /data
=>exit

批量安装软件(GP)

cd /home/gpadmin/source /usr/local/greenplum-db/greenplum_path.shgpseginstall -f hostfile_allhosts -u gpadmin -p gpadmin

设置NTP同步


 Yum下载安装NTP服务器,已安装的可以略过

sudo yum install ntp -y

若出现如下报错,可看下一步解决方法

There was a problem importing one of the Python modules required to run yum. The error leading to this problem was:     No module named yum   Please install a package which provides this module, or verify that the module is installed correctly.   It's possible that the above module doesn't match the current version of Python, which is: 2.7.13 (r266:84292, Jan 22 2014, 09:37:14)  [GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-4)]   If you cannot solve this problem yourself, please go to  the yum faq at:   http://yum.baseurl.org/wiki/Faq
View Code

解决方法:

unset PYTHONHOMEunset PYTHONPATHunset LD_LIBRARY_PATH

 再进行yum安装之后,再修改回来,使得GP能正常使用

source /usr/local/greenplum-db/greenplum_path.sh

注:报错原因:在安装GP集群之后,会在master节点中的环境变量中会增加 PYTHONHOME,PYTHONPATH,LD_LIBRARY_PATH几项,并且会修改原本的path。

补充:LD_LIBRARY_PATH 该环境变量主要用于指定查找共享库(动态链接库)时除了默认路径之外的其他路径。


在每个Segment主机,编辑/etc/ntp.conf文件。设置第一个server参数指向Master主机,第二个server参数指向Standby主机。如下面:

sudo vim /etc/ntp.conf

server gp-master preferserver gp-standby

在Standby主机,编辑/etc/ntp.conf文件。设置第一个server参数指向Master主机,第二个参数指向数据中心的时间服务器。

sudo vim /etc/ntp.conf

server gp-master prefer

在Master主机,使用NTP守护进程同步所有Segment主机的系统时钟。例如,使用gpssh来完成:

gpssh -f hostfile_allhosts -v -e 'ntpd'

 输出如下代表成功:

[root@gp-master gpadmin]# gpssh -f all_hosts -v -e 'ntpd'[WARN] Reference default values as $MASTER_DATA_DIRECTORY/gpssh.conf could not be foundUsing delaybeforesend 0.05 and prompt_validation_timeout 1.0[Reset ...][INFO] login mdw[INFO] login smdw[INFO] login sdw1[INFO] login sdw2[ mdw] ntpd[smdw] ntpd[sdw1] ntpd[sdw2] ntpd[INFO] completed successfully[Cleanup...]

配置Greenplum初始化文件

cp $GPHOME/docs/cli_help/gpconfigs/gpinitsystem_config   /home/gpadmin/gpinitsystem_configchmod 775 gpinitsystem_config

 相关配置如下:

[gpadmin@gp-master ~]$ cat gpinitsystem_config # FILE NAME: gpinitsystem_config# Configuration file needed by the gpinitsystem#################################################### REQUIRED PARAMETERS#################################################### Name of this Greenplum system enclosed in quotes.ARRAY_NAME="Greenplum Data Platform"#### Naming convention for utility-generated data directories.SEG_PREFIX=gpseg#### Base number by which primary segment port numbers #### are calculated.PORT_BASE=40000#### File system location(s) where primary segment data directories #### will be created. The number of locations in the list dictate#### the number of primary segments that will get created per#### physical host (if multiple addresses for a host are listed in #### the hostfile, the number of segments will be spread evenly across#### the specified interface addresses).declare -a DATA_DIRECTORY=(/data/greenplum_data/primary)#### OS-configured hostname or IP address of the master host.MASTER_HOSTNAME=k8s-master#### File system location where the master data directory #### will be created.MASTER_DIRECTORY=/data/greenplum_data/gpmaster#### Port number for the master instance. MASTER_PORT=5432#### Shell utility used to connect to remote hosts.TRUSTED_SHELL=ssh#### Maximum log file segments between automatic WAL checkpoints.CHECK_POINT_SEGMENTS=8#### Default server-side character set encoding.ENCODING=UTF-8#################################################### OPTIONAL MIRROR PARAMETERS#################################################### Base number by which mirror segment port numbers #### are calculated.MIRROR_PORT_BASE=43000#### Base number by which primary file replication port #### numbers are calculated.REPLICATION_PORT_BASE=34000#### Base number by which mirror file replication port #### numbers are calculated. MIRROR_REPLICATION_PORT_BASE=44000#### File system location(s) where mirror segment data directories #### will be created. The number of mirror locations must equal the#### number of primary locations as specified in the #### DATA_DIRECTORY parameter.declare -a MIRROR_DATA_DIRECTORY=(/data/greenplum_data/mirror)#################################################### OTHER OPTIONAL PARAMETERS#################################################### Create a database of this name after initialization.DATABASE_NAME=testDB#### Specify the location of the host address file here instead of#### with the the -h option of gpinitsystem.MACHINE_LIST_FILE=/home/gpadmin/hostfile_segments
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 运行初始化工具初始化数据库

source /usr/local/greenplum-db/greenplum_path.sh gpinitsystem -c gpinitsystem_config

初始化日志:

20160827:16:23:11:002458 gpinitsystem:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Review options for gpinitstandby20160827:16:23:11:002458 gpinitsystem:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-------------------------------------------------------20160827:16:23:11:002458 gpinitsystem:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-The Master /data/master/gpseg-1/pg_hba.conf post gpinitsystem20160827:16:23:11:002458 gpinitsystem:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-has been configured to allow all hosts within this new20160827:16:23:11:002458 gpinitsystem:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-array to intercommunicate. Any hosts external to this20160827:16:23:11:002458 gpinitsystem:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-new array must be explicitly added to this file20160827:16:23:11:002458 gpinitsystem:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Refer to the Greenplum Admin support guide which is20160827:16:23:11:002458 gpinitsystem:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-located in the /usr/local/greenplum-db/./docs directory20160827:16:23:11:002458 gpinitsystem:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-------------------------------------------------------

现在只有1个master,2个segment,没有standby,那么接下来把standby加入集群。

在Master服务器上执行

gpinitstandby -s gp-standby

输出如下:

[gpadmin@mdw ~]$ gpinitstandby -s smdw20160827:16:59:24:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Validating environment and parameters for standby initialization...20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Checking for filespace directory /data/master/gpseg-1 on smdw20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:------------------------------------------------------20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Greenplum standby master initialization parameters20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:------------------------------------------------------20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Greenplum master hostname               = mdw20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Greenplum master data directory         = /data/master/gpseg-120160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Greenplum master port                   = 543220160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Greenplum standby master hostname       = smdw20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Greenplum standby master port           = 543220160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Greenplum standby master data directory = /data/master/gpseg-120160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Greenplum update system catalog         = On20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:------------------------------------------------------20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:- Filespace locations20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:------------------------------------------------------20160827:16:59:25:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-pg_system -> /data/master/gpseg-1Do you want to continue with standby master initialization? Yy|Nn (default=N):> y20160827:16:59:31:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Syncing Greenplum Database extensions to standby20160827:16:59:31:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-The packages on smdw are consistent.20160827:16:59:31:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Adding standby master to catalog...20160827:16:59:31:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Database catalog updated successfully.20160827:16:59:31:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Updating pg_hba.conf file...20160827:16:59:37:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-pg_hba.conf files updated successfully.20160827:16:59:39:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Updating filespace flat files...20160827:16:59:39:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Filespace flat file updated successfully.20160827:16:59:39:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Starting standby master20160827:16:59:39:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Checking if standby master is running on host: smdw  in directory: /data/master/gpseg-120160827:16:59:40:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Cleaning up pg_hba.conf backup files...20160827:16:59:46:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Backup files of pg_hba.conf cleaned up successfully.20160827:16:59:46:023346 gpinitstandby:mdw:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Successfully created standby master on gp-standby
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查看启动进程:

[gpadmin@gp-master ~]$ ps -ef | grep postgresgpadmin  10975     1  0 00:57 ?        00:00:00 /usr/local/greenplum-db-5.21.1/bin/postgres -D /data/greenplum_data/gpmaster/gpseg-1 -p 5432 --gp_dbid=1 --gp_num_contents_in_cluster=2 --silent-mode=true -i -M master --gp_contentid=-1 -x 0 -Egpadmin  10976 10975  0 00:57 ?        00:00:00 postgres:  5432, master logger process   gpadmin  10979 10975  0 00:57 ?        00:00:00 postgres:  5432, stats collector process   gpadmin  10980 10975  0 00:57 ?        00:00:01 postgres:  5432, writer process   gpadmin  10981 10975  0 00:57 ?        00:00:00 postgres:  5432, checkpointer process   gpadmin  10982 10975  0 00:57 ?        00:00:00 postgres:  5432, seqserver process   gpadmin  10983 10975  0 00:57 ?        00:00:00 postgres:  5432, ftsprobe process   gpadmin  10984 10975  0 00:57 ?        00:00:00 postgres:  5432, sweeper process   gpadmin  10985 10975  0 00:57 ?        00:00:05 postgres:  5432, stats sender process   gpadmin  10986 10975  0 00:57 ?        00:00:01 postgres:  5432, wal writer process   gpadmin  11279 10975  0 00:59 ?        00:00:00 postgres:  5432, wal sender process gpadmin 192.168.18.131(53573) streaming 0/C05A028gpadmin  16800 16608  0 04:15 pts/0    00:00:00 grep --color=auto postgres

设置gpadmin用户环境变量,Master,Standby都需设置。 

vim /home/gpadmin/.bashrc

[gpadmin@gp-master ~]$ cat .bashrc # .bashrc# Source global definitionsif [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then        . /etc/bashrcfi# Uncomment the following line if you don't like systemctl's auto-paging feature:# export SYSTEMD_PAGER=# User specific aliases and functionssource /usr/local/greenplum-db/greenplum_path.sh export MASTER_DATA_DIRECTORY=/data/greenplum_data/gpmaster/gpseg-1export PGPRORT=5432export PGDATABASE=testDB
[gpadmin@gp-master ~]$ scp .bashrc gp-standby:`pwd`

启动和停止数据库测试是否能正常启动和关闭,命令如下

gpstartgpstop 

到此 Greenplum 就部署完成了。下面进行一些简单的测试。

登录数据库:psql -d postgres

建表,插入,查询

postgres=# create table student ( no int primary key,student_name varchar(40),age int);NOTICE:  CREATE TABLE / PRIMARY KEY will create implicit index "student_pkey" for table "student"CREATE TABLEpostgres=# insert into student values(1,'yayun',18);INSERT 0 1postgres=# select * from student; no | student_name | age ----+--------------+-----  1 | yayun        |  18(1 row)

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